Invasive Phragmites (European Common Reed) is an invasive plant causing damage to Ontario’s biodiversity, wetlands and beaches. Invasive Phragmites is a perennial grass that has been damaging ecosystems in Ontario for decades. It is not clear how it was transported to North America from its native home in Eurasia.
Invasive Phragmites is an aggressive plant that spreads quickly and out-competes native species for water and nutrients. It releases toxins from its roots into the soil to hinder the growth of and kill surrounding plants. While it prefers areas of standing water, its roots can grow to extreme lengths, allowing it to survive in relatively dry areas.
Impacts of Invasive Phragmites
- Crowds out native vegetation, thus resulting in decreased plant biodiversity.
- Generally provides poor habitat and food supplies for wildlife, including several Species at Risk.
- Grows very quickly thereby causing lower water levels as water is transpired faster than it would be with native vegetation.
- Increases fire hazards as stands are composed of a high percentage of dead stalks.
- Can affect agriculture, cause road safety hazard and impact recreational activities such as swimming, boating and angling.
How to Identify Invasive Phragmites
One factor making the identification of invasive Phragmites difficult is the existence of a closely related native subspecies. Generally, native Phragmites does not grow as tall as the invasive plant and does not out-compete other native species. A number of characteristics of the plant can be useful in distinguishing between the native variety and invasive Phragmites. The following information can help in identifying invasive Phragmites.
- Grows in stands that can be extremely dense with as many as 200 stems per square metre.
- Can grow so densely that it crowds out other species.
- Can reach heights of up to 5 metres (15 feet).
- Has stems that are tan or beige in colour with blue-green leaves and large, dense seedheads.
- Grows in stands that are usually not as dense as the invasive plant;
- Well-established stands are frequently mixed with other plants; and
- Usually has more reddish-brown stems, yellow-green leaves and smaller, sparser seedheads.
What You Can Do
- Learn how to identify invasive Phragmites and how to avoid accidentally spreading it through its root fragments and seeds. This is especially important if you are planning to do work in an area which contains invasive Phragmites.
- Learn how to effectively manage Phragmites on your property. The guide to Best Management Practices for Phragmites describes the most effective and environmentally safe control practices for this species.
- Never buy or plant invasive Phragmites. It is against the law to buy, sell, trade or purposely grow invasive Phragmites.
- Stay on designated trails and keep pets on a leash. Leaving trails or entering areas containing invasive Phragmites can encourage the spread of this plant.
- When leaving an area containing invasive Phragmites, inspect, clean and remove mud, seeds and plant parts from clothing, pets (and horses), vehicles (including bicycles and ATVs), and equipment such as mowers and tools.
- Do not compost invasive Phragmites in your backyard composter. Both seeds and rhizomes (horizontal plant stems growing underground) can survive and grow in compost, unless high enough temperatures are reached to kill the reproducing structures. Contact your local municipality to determine if plant material can be brought to their composting facility. Ontario composting facilities monitor the compost process and meet provincially regulated temperature requirements.
- If you have any information about the illegal importing, distribution or sale of invasive Phragmites, report it immediately to the NDMNRF TIPS line at 1-877-TIPS-MNR (847-7667) toll-free anytime. You can also call Crime Stoppers anonymously at 1-800-222-TIPS (8477).
- If you’ve seen Invasive Phragmites or other invasive species in the wild, please contact the Invading Species Hotline at 1-800-563-7711, or visit EDDMapS Ontario to report a sighting.
OFAH/ONDMNRF Invading Species Awareness Program. (2021). Invasive Phragmites. Retrieved from: www.invadingspecies.com.
This factsheet may be reproduced for non-commercial purposes.
Header photo by Wasyl Bakowsky.
Think you have seen an invasive species?
Invading Species Hotline